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MySQL中json字段的操作方法

   MySQL5.7.8中引入了json字段,这种类型的字段使用的频率比较低,但是在实际操作中,有些业务仍然在用,我们以此为例,介绍下json字段的操作方法:

还是从例子看起:

mysql> create table test1(id int,info json);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.02 sec)

mysql> insert into test1 values (1,'{"name":"yeyz","age":26}'),(2,'{"name":"zhangsan","age":30}'),(3,'{"name":"lisi","age":35}');
Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.02 sec)
Records: 3 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0

mysql> select * from test1;
+------+---------------------------------+
| id  | info              |
+------+---------------------------------+
|  1 | {"age": 26, "name": "yeyz"}   |
|  2 | {"age": 30, "name": "zhangsan"} |
|  3 | {"age": 35, "name": "lisi"}   |
+------+---------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

    首先我们创建了一个表test1,其中id是int字段,info是json字段,插入了三条数据,如上:

mysql> select * from test1 where json_extract(info,"$.age")>=30;
+------+---------------------------------+
| id  | info              |
+------+---------------------------------+
|  2 | {"age": 30, "name": "zhangsan"} |
|  3 | {"age": 35, "name": "lisi"}   |
+------+---------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

   我们可以通过json_extract的方法得到json中的内容。其中:

1、$符号代表的是json的根目录,

2、我们使用$.age相当于取出来了json中的age字段,

3、当然,在函数最前面,应该写上字段名字info

下面来看json中常用的函数:

a、json_valid判断是否是json字段,如果是,返回1,如果不是,返回0

mysql> select json_valid(2);
+---------------+
| json_valid(2) |
+---------------+
|       0 |
+---------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
mysql> select json_valid('{"num":2}');
+-------------------------+
| json_valid('{"num":2}') |
+-------------------------+
|            1 |
+-------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select json_valid('2');
+-----------------+
| json_valid('2') |
+-----------------+
|        1 |
+-----------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select json_valid('name');
+--------------------+
| json_valid('name') |
+--------------------+
|         0 |
+--------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

   这里需要注意的是,如果传入了字符串2,那么,返回结果是1

b、json_keys传回执行json字段最上一层的key值

mysql> select json_keys('{"name":"yeyz","score":100}');
+------------------------------------------+
| json_keys('{"name":"yeyz","score":100}') |
+------------------------------------------+
| ["name", "score"]            |
+------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)
mysql> select json_keys('{"name":"yeyz","score":{"math":100,"English":95}}');
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| json_keys('{"name":"yeyz","score":{"math":100,"English":95}}') |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| ["name", "score"]                       |
+----------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
#如果有多层,可以在最后面使用$的方法,拿到其中的某一层的目录
mysql> select json_keys('{"name":"yeyz","score":{"math":100,"English":95}}','$.score');
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| json_keys('{"name":"yeyz","score":{"math":100,"English":95}}','$.score') |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| ["math", "English"]                           |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

c、json_length函数,返回最上一层的key个数,如果想取到中间的某一层,则可以使用$的方法,如下:

mysql> select json_length('{"name":"yeyz","score":{"math":100,"English":95},"age":26}');
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| json_length('{"name":"yeyz","score":{"math":100,"English":95},"age":26}') |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                     3 |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select json_length('{"name":"yeyz","score":{"math":100,"English":95},"age":26}','$.score');
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| json_length('{"name":"yeyz","score":{"math":100,"English":95},"age":26}','$.score') |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                          2 |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

d、json_depth函数,json文件的深度,测试例子如下:

mysql> select json_depth('{"aaa":1}'),json_depth('{}');
+-------------------------+------------------+
| json_depth('{"aaa":1}') | json_depth('{}') |
+-------------------------+------------------+
|            2 |        1 |
+-------------------------+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select json_depth('{"name":"yeyz","score":{"math":100,"English":95},"age":26}');
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| json_depth('{"name":"yeyz","score":{"math":100,"English":95},"age":26}') |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                    3 |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

   这里需要注意的是,形如{‘aa’:1}这种形式的json,其深度是2

e、json_contains_path函数检索json中是否有一个或者多个成员。

mysql> set @j='{"a":1,"b":2,"c":{"d":4}}';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
#one的意思是只要包含一个成员,就返回1
mysql> select json_contains_path(@j,'one','$.a','$.e');
+------------------------------------------+
| json_contains_path(@j,'one','$.a','$.e') |
+------------------------------------------+
|                    1 |
+------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
#all的意思是所有的成员都包含,才返回1
mysql> select json_contains_path(@j,'all','$.a','$.e');
+------------------------------------------+
| json_contains_path(@j,'all','$.a','$.e') |
+------------------------------------------+
|                    0 |
+------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> select json_contains_path(@j,'one','$.c.d');
+--------------------------------------+
| json_contains_path(@j,'one','$.c.d') |
+--------------------------------------+
|                  1 |
+--------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select json_contains_path(@j,'one','$.a.d');
+--------------------------------------+
| json_contains_path(@j,'one','$.a.d') |
+--------------------------------------+
|                  0 |
+--------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

f、json_type函数,判断json中的成员的类型,需要和json_extract结合起来使用。

mysql> select * from test1;
+------+---------------------------------+
| id  | info              |
+------+---------------------------------+
|  1 | {"age": 26, "name": "yeyz"}   |
|  2 | {"age": 30, "name": "zhangsan"} |
|  3 | {"age": 35, "name": "lisi"}   |
+------+---------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
#判断name的类型
mysql> select json_type(json_extract(info,"$.name")) from test1;
+----------------------------------------+
| json_type(json_extract(info,"$.name")) |
+----------------------------------------+
| STRING                 |
| STRING                 |
| STRING                 |
+----------------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
#判断age的类型
mysql> select json_type(json_extract(info,"$.age")) from test1;
+---------------------------------------+
| json_type(json_extract(info,"$.age")) |
+---------------------------------------+
| INTEGER                |
| INTEGER                |
| INTEGER                |
+---------------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
#判断name和age组合起来的类型,可以看到是array
mysql> select json_type(json_extract(info,"$.name","$.age")) from test1;
+------------------------------------------------+
| json_type(json_extract(info,"$.name","$.age")) |
+------------------------------------------------+
| ARRAY                     |
| ARRAY                     |
| ARRAY                     |
+------------------------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

g、*的作用,所有的值,看下面的例子。

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