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解析MySQL8.0新特性――事务性数据字典与原子DDL

前言

事务性数据字典与原子DDL,是MySQL 8.0推出的两个非常重要的新特性,之所以将这两个新特性放在一起,是因为两者密切相关,事务性数据字典是前提,原子DDL是一个重要应用场景。

MySQL 8.0之前的数据字典

MySQL 8.0之前的数据字典,主要由以下三部分组成:

(1)操作系统文件

db.opt:数据库元数据信息
frm:表元数据信息
par:表分区元数据信息
TRN/TRG:触发器元数据信息
ddl_log.log:DDL过程中产生的元数据信息

(2)mysql库下的非InnoDB系统表

mysql> select table_schema,table_name,table_type,engine from information_schema.tables where table_schema='mysql' and engine'InnoDB';
+--------------+------------------+------------+--------+
| table_schema | table_name    | table_type | engine |
+--------------+------------------+------------+--------+
| mysql    | columns_priv   | BASE TABLE | MyISAM |
| mysql    | db        | BASE TABLE | MyISAM |
| mysql    | event      | BASE TABLE | MyISAM |
| mysql    | func       | BASE TABLE | MyISAM |
| mysql    | general_log   | BASE TABLE | CSV  |
| mysql    | ndb_binlog_index | BASE TABLE | MyISAM |
| mysql    | proc       | BASE TABLE | MyISAM |
| mysql    | procs_priv    | BASE TABLE | MyISAM |
| mysql    | proxies_priv   | BASE TABLE | MyISAM |
| mysql    | slow_log     | BASE TABLE | CSV  |
| mysql    | tables_priv   | BASE TABLE | MyISAM |
| mysql    | user       | BASE TABLE | MyISAM |
+--------------+------------------+------------+--------+
12 rows in set (0.00 sec)

(3)mysql库下的InnoDB系统表

mysql> select table_schema,table_name,table_type,engine from information_schema.tables where table_schema='mysql' and engine='InnoDB';
+--------------+---------------------------+------------+--------+
| table_schema | table_name        | table_type | engine |
+--------------+---------------------------+------------+--------+
| mysql    | engine_cost        | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | gtid_executed       | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | help_category       | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | help_keyword       | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | help_relation       | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | help_topic        | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | innodb_index_stats    | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | innodb_table_stats    | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | plugin          | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | server_cost        | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | servers          | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | slave_master_info     | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | slave_relay_log_info   | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | slave_worker_info     | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | time_zone         | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | time_zone_leap_second   | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | time_zone_name      | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | time_zone_transition   | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
| mysql    | time_zone_transition_type | BASE TABLE | InnoDB |
+--------------+---------------------------+------------+--------+
19 rows in set (0.00 sec)

我们可以看到,数据字典被分布到多个地方,一方面不利于元数据统一管理,另一方面容易造成数据的不一致(由于操作系统文件、非InnoDB系统表均不支持事务,执行DDL操作无法保证ACID)。

MySQL 8.0的数据字典

为了解决上述问题,MySQL 8.0将数据字典统一改进为InnoDB存储引擎存储,具体分为两部分:

(1)数据字典表:存放最重要的元数据信息,位于mysql库下,存储在mysql共享表空间(mysql.ibd)

(2)其他系统表:存放辅助的元数据信息,位于mysql库下,存储在mysql共享表空间(mysql.ibd)

数据字典表

数据字典表是不可见,既不能通过select访问,也不会出现在show tables或information.schema.tables结果里;尝试访问会报以下错误:

mysql> select * from mysql.tables limit 10;
ERROR 3554 (HY000): Access to data dictionary table 'mysql.tables' is rejected.

不过,在debug模式下,是可以访问这些隐藏的数据字典表的;我们重新编译安装(过程略),并以debug模式启动进程,再次尝试访问,结果如下:

mysql> SET SESSION debug='+d,skip_dd_table_access_check';

mysql> SELECT name, schema_id, hidden, type FROM mysql.tables where schema_id=1 AND hidden='System';
+------------------------------+-----------+--------+------------+
| name             | schema_id | hidden | type    |
+------------------------------+-----------+--------+------------+
| catalogs           |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| character_sets        |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| check_constraints      |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| collations          |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| column_statistics      |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| column_type_elements     |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| columns           |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| dd_properties        |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| events            |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| foreign_key_column_usage   |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| foreign_keys         |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| index_column_usage      |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| index_partitions       |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| index_stats         |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| indexes           |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| innodb_ddl_log        |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| innodb_dynamic_metadata   |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| parameter_type_elements   |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| parameters          |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| resource_groups       |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| routines           |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| schemata           |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| st_spatial_reference_systems |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| table_partition_values    |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| table_partitions       |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| table_stats         |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| tables            |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| tablespace_files       |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| tablespaces         |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| triggers           |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| view_routine_usage      |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
| view_table_usage       |     1 | System | BASE TABLE |
+------------------------------+-----------+--------+------------+
32 rows in set (0.01 sec)

其他系统表

其他系统表,可以通过show tables或information_schema.tables查看,均以改进为InnoDB存储引擎(general_log、slow_log例外,这两张表并未记录元数据信息,只是用于记录日志):

mysql> select table_schema,table_name,engine from information_schema.tables where table_schema='mysql';
+--------------+---------------------------+--------+
| TABLE_SCHEMA | TABLE_NAME        | ENGINE |
+--------------+---------------------------+--------+
| mysql    | columns_priv       | InnoDB |
| mysql    | component         | InnoDB |
| mysql    | db            | InnoDB |
| mysql    | default_roles       | InnoDB |
| mysql    | engine_cost        | InnoDB |
| mysql    | func           | InnoDB |
| mysql    | general_log        | CSV  |
| mysql    | global_grants       | InnoDB |
| mysql    | gtid_executed       | InnoDB |
| mysql    | help_category       | InnoDB |
| mysql    | help_keyword       | InnoDB |
| mysql    | help_relation       | InnoDB |
| mysql    | help_topic        | InnoDB |
| mysql    | innodb_index_stats    | InnoDB |
| mysql    | innodb_table_stats    | InnoDB |
| mysql    | password_history     | InnoDB |
| mysql    | plugin          | InnoDB |
| mysql    | procs_priv        | InnoDB |
| mysql    | proxies_priv       | InnoDB |
| mysql    | role_edges        | InnoDB |
| mysql    | server_cost        | InnoDB |
| mysql    | servers          | InnoDB |
| mysql    | slave_master_info     | InnoDB |
| mysql    | slave_relay_log_info   | InnoDB |
| mysql    | slave_worker_info     | InnoDB |
| mysql    | slow_log         | CSV  |
| mysql    | tables_priv        | InnoDB |
| mysql    | time_zone         | InnoDB |
| mysql    | time_zone_leap_second   | InnoDB |
| mysql    | time_zone_name      | InnoDB |
| mysql    | time_zone_transition   | InnoDB |
| mysql    | time_zone_transition_type | InnoDB |
| mysql    | user           | InnoDB |
+--------------+---------------------------+--------+
33 rows in set (0.00 sec)

数据字典视图

刚刚提到,数据字典表只能在debug模式下访问,那么在生产环境中,我们应该怎么去获取元数据信息呢?答案是通过information_schema库下的数据字典视图。和Oracle数据库的设计理念一样,将元数据信息存放在基表中(x$、$),然后通过视图(v$、dba_/all_/user_)的方式提供给用户查询;MySQL数据库也是如此,将元数据信息存放在mysql库的数据字典表中隐藏起来,然后提供information_schema库视图给用户查询:

mysql> select table_schema,table_name,table_type,engine from information_schema.tables where table_schema='information_schema'; 
+--------------------+---------------------------------------+-------------+--------+
| TABLE_SCHEMA    | TABLE_NAME              | TABLE_TYPE | ENGINE |
+--------------------+---------------------------------------+-------------+--------+
| information_schema | ADMINISTRABLE_ROLE_AUTHORIZATIONS   | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | APPLICABLE_ROLES           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | CHARACTER_SETS            | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | CHECK_CONSTRAINTS           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | COLLATION_CHARACTER_SET_APPLICABILITY | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | COLLATIONS              | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | COLUMN_PRIVILEGES           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | COLUMN_STATISTICS           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | COLUMNS                | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | ENABLED_ROLES             | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | ENGINES                | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | EVENTS                | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | FILES                 | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_BUFFER_PAGE          | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_BUFFER_PAGE_LRU        | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_BUFFER_POOL_STATS       | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_CACHED_INDEXES         | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_CMP              | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_CMP_PER_INDEX         | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_CMP_PER_INDEX_RESET      | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_CMP_RESET           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_CMPMEM             | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_CMPMEM_RESET          | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_COLUMNS            | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_DATAFILES           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_FIELDS             | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_FOREIGN            | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_FOREIGN_COLS          | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_FT_BEING_DELETED        | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_FT_CONFIG           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_FT_DEFAULT_STOPWORD      | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_FT_DELETED           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_FT_INDEX_CACHE         | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_FT_INDEX_TABLE         | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_INDEXES            | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_METRICS            | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_SESSION_TEMP_TABLESPACES    | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_TABLES             | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_TABLESPACES          | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_TABLESPACES_BRIEF       | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_TABLESTATS           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_TEMP_TABLE_INFO        | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_TRX              | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | INNODB_VIRTUAL            | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | KEY_COLUMN_USAGE           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | KEYWORDS               | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | OPTIMIZER_TRACE            | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | PARAMETERS              | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | PARTITIONS              | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | PLUGINS                | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | PROCESSLIST              | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | PROFILING               | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | REFERENTIAL_CONSTRAINTS        | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | RESOURCE_GROUPS            | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | ROLE_COLUMN_GRANTS          | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | ROLE_ROUTINE_GRANTS          | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | ROLE_TABLE_GRANTS           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | ROUTINES               | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | SCHEMA_PRIVILEGES           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | SCHEMATA               | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | ST_GEOMETRY_COLUMNS          | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | ST_SPATIAL_REFERENCE_SYSTEMS     | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | ST_UNITS_OF_MEASURE          | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | STATISTICS              | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | TABLE_CONSTRAINTS           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | TABLE_PRIVILEGES           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | TABLES                | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | TABLESPACES              | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | TRIGGERS               | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | USER_PRIVILEGES            | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | VIEW_ROUTINE_USAGE          | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | VIEW_TABLE_USAGE           | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
| information_schema | VIEWS                 | SYSTEM VIEW | NULL  |
+--------------------+---------------------------------------+-------------+--------+
73 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> show create table information_schema.tablesG
*************************** 1. row ***************************
        View: TABLES
     Create View: CREATE ALGORITHM=UNDEFINED DEFINER=`mysql.infoschema`@`localhost` SQL SECURITY DEFINER VIEW `information_schema`.`TABLES` AS select (`cat`.`name` collate utf8_tolower_ci) AS `TABLE_CATALOG`,(`sch`.`name` collate utf8_tolower_ci) AS `TABLE_SCHEMA`,(`tbl`.`name` collate utf8_tolower_ci) AS `TABLE_NAME`,`tbl`.`type` AS `TABLE_TYPE`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'BASE TABLE'),`tbl`.`engine`,NULL) AS `ENGINE`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,10) AS `VERSION`,`tbl`.`row_format` AS `ROW_FORMAT`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,internal_table_rows(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`,if((`tbl`.`partition_type` is null),`tbl`.`engine`,''),`tbl`.`se_private_id`,(`tbl`.`hidden`  'Visible'),`ts`.`se_private_data`,coalesce(`stat`.`table_rows`,0),coalesce(cast(`stat`.`cached_time` as unsigned),0))) AS `TABLE_ROWS`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,internal_avg_row_length(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`,if((`tbl`.`partition_type` is null),`tbl`.`engine`,''),`tbl`.`se_private_id`,(`tbl`.`hidden`  'Visible'),`ts`.`se_private_data`,coalesce(`stat`.`avg_row_length`,0),coalesce(cast(`stat`.`cached_time` as unsigned),0))) AS `AVG_ROW_LENGTH`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,internal_data_length(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`,if((`tbl`.`partition_type` is null),`tbl`.`engine`,''),`tbl`.`se_private_id`,(`tbl`.`hidden`  'Visible'),`ts`.`se_private_data`,coalesce(`stat`.`data_length`,0),coalesce(cast(`stat`.`cached_time` as unsigned),0))) AS `DATA_LENGTH`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,internal_max_data_length(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`,if((`tbl`.`partition_type` is null),`tbl`.`engine`,''),`tbl`.`se_private_id`,(`tbl`.`hidden`  'Visible'),`ts`.`se_private_data`,coalesce(`stat`.`max_data_length`,0),coalesce(cast(`stat`.`cached_time` as unsigned),0))) AS `MAX_DATA_LENGTH`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,internal_index_length(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`,if((`tbl`.`partition_type` is null),`tbl`.`engine`,''),`tbl`.`se_private_id`,(`tbl`.`hidden`  'Visible'),`ts`.`se_private_data`,coalesce(`stat`.`index_length`,0),coalesce(cast(`stat`.`cached_time` as unsigned),0))) AS `INDEX_LENGTH`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,internal_data_free(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`,if((`tbl`.`partition_type` is null),`tbl`.`engine`,''),`tbl`.`se_private_id`,(`tbl`.`hidden`  'Visible'),`ts`.`se_private_data`,coalesce(`stat`.`data_free`,0),coalesce(cast(`stat`.`cached_time` as unsigned),0))) AS `DATA_FREE`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,internal_auto_increment(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`,if((`tbl`.`partition_type` is null),`tbl`.`engine`,''),`tbl`.`se_private_id`,(`tbl`.`hidden`  'Visible'),`ts`.`se_private_data`,coalesce(`stat`.`auto_increment`,0),coalesce(cast(`stat`.`cached_time` as unsigned),0),`tbl`.`se_private_data`)) AS `AUTO_INCREMENT`,`tbl`.`created` AS `CREATE_TIME`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,internal_update_time(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`,if((`tbl`.`partition_type` is null),`tbl`.`engine`,''),`tbl`.`se_private_id`,(`tbl`.`hidden`  'Visible'),`ts`.`se_private_data`,coalesce(cast(`stat`.`update_time` as unsigned),0),coalesce(cast(`stat`.`cached_time` as unsigned),0))) AS `UPDATE_TIME`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,internal_check_time(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`,if((`tbl`.`partition_type` is null),`tbl`.`engine`,''),`tbl`.`se_private_id`,(`tbl`.`hidden`  'Visible'),`ts`.`se_private_data`,coalesce(cast(`stat`.`check_time` as unsigned),0),coalesce(cast(`stat`.`cached_time` as unsigned),0))) AS `CHECK_TIME`,`col`.`name` AS `TABLE_COLLATION`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,internal_checksum(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`,if((`tbl`.`partition_type` is null),`tbl`.`engine`,''),`tbl`.`se_private_id`,(`tbl`.`hidden`  'Visible'),`ts`.`se_private_data`,coalesce(`stat`.`checksum`,0),coalesce(cast(`stat`.`cached_time` as unsigned),0))) AS `CHECKSUM`,if((`tbl`.`type` = 'VIEW'),NULL,get_dd_create_options(`tbl`.`options`,if((ifnull(`tbl`.`partition_expression`,'NOT_PART_TBL') = 'NOT_PART_TBL'),0,1),if((`sch`.`default_encryption` = 'YES'),1,0))) AS `CREATE_OPTIONS`,internal_get_comment_or_error(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`,`tbl`.`type`,`tbl`.`options`,`tbl`.`comment`) AS `TABLE_COMMENT` from (((((`mysql`.`tables` `tbl` join `mysql`.`schemata` `sch` on((`tbl`.`schema_id` = `sch`.`id`))) join `mysql`.`catalogs` `cat` on((`cat`.`id` = `sch`.`catalog_id`))) left join `mysql`.`collations` `col` on((`tbl`.`collation_id` = `col`.`id`))) left join `mysql`.`tablespaces` `ts` on((`tbl`.`tablespace_id` = `ts`.`id`))) left join `mysql`.`table_stats` `stat` on(((`tbl`.`name` = `stat`.`table_name`) and (`sch`.`name` = `stat`.`schema_name`)))) where ((0  can_access_table(`sch`.`name`,`tbl`.`name`)) and (0  is_visible_dd_object(`tbl`.`hidden`)))
character_set_client: utf8
collation_connection: utf8_general_ci
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

数据字典缓存

为了减少磁盘IO,提高访问效率,MySQL 8.0引入了数据字典缓存。数据字典缓存是一块全局共享区域,通过LRU算法进行内存管理,具体包括:

tablespace definition cache partition:用于缓存表空间定义对象;大小限制由参数tablespace_definition_cache决定。
schema definition cache partition:用于缓存模式定义对象;大小限制由参数schema_definition_cache决定。
table definition cache partition:用于缓存表定义对象;大小限制由参数max_connections决定。
stored program definition cache partition:用于缓存存储过程定义对象;大小限制由参数stored_program_definition_cache决定。
character set definition cache partition:用于缓存字符集定义对象;硬编码限制256个。
collation definition cache partition:用于缓存排序规则定义对象;硬编码限制256个。

原子DDL

首先,了解一下什么是原子性?原子性是指,一个事务执行要么全部成功,要么全部失败。

在MySQL 8.0之前,由于不支持原子DDL,在服务进程异常挂掉或服务器异常宕机的情况下,有可能会导致数据字典、存储引擎结构、二进制日志之间的不一致。

在MySQL 8.0中,数据字典均被改造成InnoDB存储引擎表,原子DDL也被引入进来。原子DDL是将数据字典更新、存储引擎操作、二进制日志写入放到同一个事务里执行,要么全部成功提交,要么全部失败回滚。

接下来,我们还是先通过一个例子,来了解一下原子DDL。在这个例子中,DROP TABLE t1, t2属于同一个事务;在5.7版本中,出现了一个事务部分、成功部分失败的情况,即DROP TABLE t1成功、DROP TABLE t2失败;但在8.0版本中,因为DROP TABLE t2失败,导致整个事务全部失败回滚;这个例子就很好地体现了原子性和非原子性的区别。

5.7版本:
mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT);
mysql> DROP TABLE t1, t2;
ERROR 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.t2'
mysql> SHOW TABLES;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

8.0版本:
mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT);
mysql> DROP TABLE t1, t2;
ERROR 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.t2'
mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+----------------+
| Tables_in_test |
+----------------+
| t1       |
+----------------+

在对原子DDL有初步了解后,接下来介绍一下具体过程:

(1)prepare:创建需要的对象,并将ddl日志写入到mysql.innodb_ddl_log;ddl日志记录了如何前滚和回滚ddl操作。
(2)perform:执行ddl操作。
(3)commit:更新数据字典并提交。
(4)post-ddl:重放和删除ddl日志。只有在实例异常宕机情况下,ddl日志才会继续保存在mysql.innodb_ddl_log;在在实例重启后,进行实例恢复阶段,ddl日志会重放和删除;如果第3步-数据字典更新已经成功提交,并写入redo log和binlog,那么ddl操作成功;否则,ddl操作失败,并根据ddl日志进行回滚

最后,再介绍一下,怎么查看DDL日志?

其中一个方法,是在debug级别下,访问表mysql.innodb_ddl_log进行查看(不推荐)

CREATE TABLE mysql.innodb_ddl_log (
 id BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
 thread_id BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
 type INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
 space_id INT UNSIGNED,
 page_no INT UNSIGNED,
 index_id BIGINT UNSIGNED,
 table_id BIGINT UNSIGNED,
 old_file_path VARCHAR(512) COLLATE UTF8_BIN,
 new_file_path VARCHAR(512) COLLATE UTF8_BIN,
 KEY(thread_id)
);

另一个办法,是可以将DDL日志打印到error log进行查看(推荐)

总结

MySQL 8.0对于数据字典的改进,带来了很多好处,包括元数据统一管理、数据字典缓存、information_schema性能提升、原子DDL等等。

文章来源于互联网:解析MySQL8.0新特性――事务性数据字典与原子DDL

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